An open access Biodiversity Research Journal called, Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES) recently published an article entitled “Quantification of deadwood littered by Acacia spp. in semi-arid ecosystems of central Tanzania: The role of deadwood in biodiversity conservation.” This research work developed by Elkana Hezron from the Department of Sustainable Agriculture, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management, School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania, and Julius W Nyahongo from the Department of Biology, College of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, The University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania
Deadwood (DW) is an important carbon component for conservation and management of biodiversity resources. They are ubiquitous in many semi-arid ecosystems although its estimation is still posing lots of challenges. At Chinwag woodland in Dodoma Region of Central Tanzania, seasonal quantification of DW produced by two Acacia spp. was done to evaluate the influence of each tree species, Dbh and canopy area on DW biomass and to determine their ecological role in conservation of semi-arid ecosystem. Both purposive and random sampling techniques were used in the course of a completely randomized design (CRD).
An Agricultural Research Journal called International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) published an articles entitled “Effects of salinity stress on growth, Water use efficiency and biomass partitioning of Vernonia hymenolepis in screenhouse potted soil amended with NPK 20:10:10”. This research work developed by Pascal Tabi Tabot, Mfombep Priscilla Mebong, Ibeku Neni Ekole, Njong Nya Claudia, Ma-Nso Delphine Tataw, Petang Lea Yoe, and Epie Bembesi Teddy from Department of Agriculture, Higher Technical Teachers’ Training College Kumba, University of Buea., Kumba, Cameroon. Nchufor Christopher Kedju, Njong Nya Claudia, Asong Daniel, and Mfornten Divine Eyong from Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Regional Delegation for the South West, Republic of Cameroon.
Future crop production is predicted to face significant challenges from salinity stress due to secondary salinization. Therefore future-proofing crop production in these conditions is an essential path towards addressing food security. We evaluated the effect of irrigation with water of 0, 4 and 8 ppt salinity on growth, biomass partitioning, and WUE and chlorophyll fluorescence of Veronica hymenolepis A. Rich as ameliorated by fertilization with three levels of NPK20:10:10. Data were analyzed for variance using the General Linear Model ANOVA procedure, after positive tests for normality and homogeneity of variance. Means were separated through the Dennett test. Pearson Correlation was done to determine relationship between variables and these were spatially projected using the Factor Analysis procedure, without rotation. Under fertilization at 8 g NPK20:10:10 per plant, growth was stimulated by salinity increase to 4 ppt (35.43cm) compared to 30.43cm for control plants. Fertilizer application significantly improved all the biomass fractions of plants irrigated with water of 4 ppt relative to the control, while root: shoot ratios were highest for unfertilized plants indicating resource re-allocation to roots for better foraging. Chlorophyll fluorescence ranged between 0.716 and 0.727 and did not differ significantly across treatments. These values indicate that all treatments were under stress, including control plants. Values of WUE and RGR indicate that fertilization of plants irrigated with water of 4ppt salinity enhances growth and Harvest Index of V. hymenolepis, in spite of the registered stress. This is significant to future food security.
0.25Salinity Root FM Root DMI Fertilizer 0.00 0.25 0.50First Factor (44.3%) There is slight stimulation of growth parameters of V. hymenolepis such as height and number of branching salinity increased from 0 to 2ppt; this is probably because slight increases in salinity stimulate the plant to rally adaptive mechanisms of salt stress tolerance that eventually over-compensate for the effect of the stress. Within the saline treatments, increasing fertilization with NPK 20:10:10 further increased these growth parameters, probably because fertilization with NPK 20:10:10 provides much needed nitrates that compensate for the limitation through fixing soil nutrients due to the saline nature of the soils. These excess nitrates go into building biomolecules for salinity stress tolerance (such asproline and glycinebetaine which are compatible osmolytes, as well as enzymes) and hence growth and photosynthesis are enhanced, as reported for mustard(Umar et al., 2015; Garg et al., 2006).Biomass partitioning in V. hymenolepis did not respond to salinity treatments but increased with fertilization with 4g NPK 20:10:10 per pot, which was a threshold; further increase of fertilization to 8g/pot suppressed biomass partitions across treatments. How biomass is allocated to different parts of the plant gives further insights to the survival and performance strategies of the plant under salinity stress. In the current research the salinity effect on biomass partitioning seems to have been cancelled by the coping mechanisms of the plant. It was expected that root growth would reduce for example, due to reduction of root cell growth, as has been reported for0.75BiomassRGRWUEShoot Shoot FM1. Tomato (Zhang et al., 2016) and potato (Tabot et al., 2018) but this was not observed. Rather, while similar across salinity regimes, root: shoot ratio decreased significantly as fertilization was increased above the control. The higher root: shoot ratio in the unfertilized plants could be a strategy for better foraging for nutrients, which become fixed in soil saline conditions, consistent with findings by Acosta-Mottos et al. (2017).With respect to fertilizer enhancement, the 4g/pot NPK 20:10:10 treatments seem to be a threshold for growth performance under conditions in the screen house, as it resulted in significantly higher WUE and RGR compared to the other treatments, irrespective of salinity. Nitrogen in fertilizer is an essential nutrient for plant health. Healthier plants grow better and hence produce more biomass per unit of irrigation water applied. Nitrogen is essential for chlorophyll formation, amino acids, proteins and enzymes including RUBISCO that is central to the process of photosynthesis (Umar et al., 2015; del Amor and Cuadra-Crespo, 2011;Shaddad et al., 1988). Interaction effects showed that the best HI was recorded in plants that received the highest level of fertilizer irrespective of salinity, implying stimulation of vegetative growth relative to biomass accumulation (Engelbrecht et al., 2013). This was the opposite pattern recorded for root: shoot ratio, which was best under non-fertilized conditions. Although fv/fm values indicated that the plants were all stressed and displayed inefficient photosynthesis, a threshold for biomass partitions, RGR and WUE was found at at 4g/pot fertilization irrespective of salinity. Factor analysis show a positive correlation of fertilizer with [shoot biomass and harvest index parameters, a negative correlation with root biomass and root: shoot ratio, and cancelling the potential salinity effects on the plants. This represents an adaptation strategy driven by nitrogen enhancement, where vegetative growth is promoted aboveground while root production belowground is suppressed, because sufficient nitrogen availability in fertilized plants eliminates the need for-allocation of Photosynthate and ATP for root architecture (Leghari et al., 2016). Get the full article by following the link Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. 18(4), 1-11, April 2021.
Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES) published an article entitled “Modified Hyphaene thebaica fiber for the sequestration of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution“ in February issue 2020 under the volume 16 at J. Bio. Env. Sci. 16(2), February 2020.. This work developed by Ahmed Salisu and Muhammad Saleh Salga from the Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Natural and Applied Science, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina, Nigeria.
Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and sustainable polymer in nature that can be modified for other useful products. The objective of this study is to modify Hyphened thebaica fiber by grafting polyacrylonitrile via free radical polymerization in aqueous medium and determine its potential to sequester metal ions from aqueous solution. Fresh stalk of Hyphaene thebaica (300g) was pulverized and subjected to alkali pre-treatment (mercerization). The fiber was grafted with Polyacrylonitrile via microwave radiation using potassium persulphate (KPS) as chemical initiator.
International Network for Natural Sciencesan open access scholarly research journal publisher published an articles on “Occurrence and diversity of microorganisms isolated” under theInternational Journal of Microbiology and Mycology, an open access research journal of Microbiology. This article is developed by Oni I. Olawale, Onifade K. Anthony, and Arutopin J. Daniel from the Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
This study was designed to assess the microbiological and physicochemical properties of soil samples from selected waste dumpsites in parts of Ondo State, Nigeria. The findings of the microbiological analysis carried out showed the mean values of the total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 1.17 × 106 ± 0.08 cfu/g – 7.67 × 106 ± 0.01 cfu/gwhile the total fungal counts recorded ranged from 1.00 × 104 ± 0.02 sfu/g to 6.33 × 104 ± 0.11 sfu/g.
JBES – An open access scholarly research journal of Environmental Sciences published an article about Origin of water Salinity in Annaba. This research work has been written by Wahiba Hamzaoui, Samir Hani, Badra Aoun-Sebaiti, Nabil Harrat, and Hicham Chaffai from the Laboratory of Water Resource and Sustainable Development (REDD), Faculty of Earth Sciences, Department of Geology, University Badji Mokhtar, Annaba, Algeria and Faculty of Earth Sciences, Department of Geology, University Badji Mokhtar, Annaba, Algeria.
The Annaba area hosts in its underground a water potential of great importance. In fact, it is one of the Algerian plains where groundwater is subject to over-pumping. Moreover, the expansion of farmlands and the development of the neighboring agglomerations required a massive pumping of water, thereby leading to the change in hydrodynamic regime of groundwater and to the degradation of its quality. On the basis of boreholes and physico chemical data, the three major factors responsible for the evolution of chemical quality of water observed at the aquifer were identified: (1) mineralization due to natural and anthropocentric processes (responsible for the increase in the contents of chlorides, sodium, calcium and magnesium), (2) the oxydo reduction conditions due to the passage of the water table from an unconfined aquifer or even semi confined to a confined aquifer (responsible for the reduction of nitrates and (3) pollution of groundwater by nitrates in areas where the water table is shallow and in the absence of a protective clayey cover.