Archive | February 2016

Effects of some environmental factors on annual weed shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.) – JBES An Open Access Research Journals

By Rouhollah Amini

Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166616471, Iran

Key words: Germination, Drought, Salinity, Seedling dry weight, Shepherd’s purse.
Abstract
Shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.) is an annual weed species with a wide distribution in cereals of East Azarbaijan, Iran. Tow experiments were carried out based on randomised complete block design with four replications in Tabriz, Iran in 2014 to evaluate the effects of salinity and drought stress on shepherd’s purse germination and early seedling growth. The salinity levels were included 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1 (deci Siemens per meter) sodium chloride (NaCl). The drought stress levels were included 0,-0.4,-0.8,-1.2,-1.6 and-2.0 MPa osmotic potentials were obtained by polyethylene glycol 8000 as osmotica.

Results indicated that the effect of salinity was significant on seedgermination percentage and rate, seedling root and shoot length and seedling dry weight. The all traits reduced significantly by increasing the salinity level. In salinity of 20 dS m-1 the germination% of shepherd’s purse was <35 and the seedling dry weight reduced 65% in comparison with control (0 dSm-1). Also the effect of drought stress was significant on seed germination, seedling length and seedling dry weight and all the traits decreased by increasing the osmotic potential. The germination% of shepherd’s purse seeds in osmotic potential of-2.0 MPa was < 32 and the reduction in seedling dry matter was > 60%. Generally, it could be concluded that drought stress such as limited irrigation and salinity would be effective strategy for reduction in germination and early seedling growth of this annual weed species. Get the full articles at: http://www.innspub.net/volume-6-number-5-may-2015-jbes/

Journal Name: Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES)

Publisher Name: International network For natural Sciences (INNSPUB)

Effect of sowing year and seedbed type on yield and yield component in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc) in woodland savannahs of Cote d’Ivoire – IJAAR | An Open Access Research Journal

  • By Kouassi N’dri Jacob*, Ayolié Koutoua, Boyé Mambe Auguste Denise

Department of Agroforestry, University of Jean Lorougnon Guede, Côte d’Ivoire

Abstract:

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) is one of the most promising food legumes in Africa, due to its agronomic and nutritional potential. To take advantage of these attributes, several research programmes gathering agronomic and genetic data are being implemented throughout Africa. In this context, the responses of yield and yield components to year sowing and seedbed type were tested in a three densities (13 900 plants ha−1, 62500 plants ha−1 and 250000 plants ha−1) field experiment using a bambara groundnut landrace with a semi-bunch growth habit. Three years sowing: 2005, 2006 and 2007 were coupled with two seedbed types – raised and flat. A factorial trial using a split-plot design with three replicates was set up to analyse seed yield and plant biomass, as well as nine yield components (Plant spread, Plant height, Number of leaves per plant, Number of pods per plants, Number of seeds per plant, Pods weight per plant, Pod fill ration, Seed harvest index). The seedbed type and year of experiment did not influence significantly the marketable yield and plant biomass (p> 0.05). This result has been attributed to the suitability of the amount and distribution of rainfall and temperature for the production of bambara groundnut at the target site. Based on the trend of yield response, cultivation of landraces of bambara groundnut characterized by a semi-bunch growth habit on flat seedbeds was suggested in woodland savannas of Côte d’Ivoire to enhance seeds yield and reduce labour. Get the full articles at: http://goo.gl/9L7cxk

Journal Name: International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)

Publication Name: International Network For Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
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Effectiveness of anthraquinone and methylanthranilate against house sparrow (Passer domesticus) from wheat seeds and seedlings in caged conditions in Pakistan – JBES | Research Articles

  • By Shahzad Ahmad1*, Farhat Jabeen1, Hammad Ahmad Khan2, Khizar Samiullah1, Sajid Yaqub1, Muhammad Samee Mubarik1, Muhammad Kashif Zahoor1, Zobia Saleem1, Asif Masih1 Maryam Shafique1
  1. Department of Zoology, Govt. College, University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  2. Department of Zoology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Among avian pests, house sparrow caused serious depredations, not only to seeds, but also seedlings of various crops particularly in the organic farming. Different mechanical and chemical ways have been reported to manage these losses all over the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of two bird repellents namely methylanthranilate and anthraquinone to manage the depredations of wheat seeds and seedlings against house sparrow in captivity. For this purpose house sparrows were offered with treated and untreated seeds and seedlings of wheat in two aviaries. By providing treated seeds and seedlings with these repellents, the relative effectiveness was appraised by comparing the consumed and unconsumed seeds and seedlings.

 

Feeding responses of these birds against different doses of these repellents were investigated with the help of the closed circuit cameras adjusted in the aviaries. During the whole experiment among trial and control group highly significant differences (P<0.01) were seen in both seeds and seedlings cases.
The mean consumption of wheat seeds treated with anthraquinone and methylanthranilate was 24.04 ± 2.50 and 26.28±2.02, respectively, which depicted anthraquinone is relatively good repellent than methylanthranilate and a significant difference (P<0.05) was also observed.Different concentrations of both repellents showed a non-significant (P>0.05) variance when wheat seeds and seedlings were offered to house sparrows. House sparrows were influenced more quickly by consuming wheat seeds and seedlings treated with both repellents. Sparrows displayed noticeable head-shaking and feather ruffling behavior by consuming the treated seeds and seedlings. Get the full articles at: http://www.innspub.net/volume-6-number-5-may-2015-jbes/

Journal Name: Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES)

Publisher Name: International network For natural Sciences (INNSPUB)

Solid state fermentation of Lathyrus sativus and sugarcane bagasse by Pleurotus sajor-caju – IJAAR An Open Access Research Journals

 

By Md. Rezaul Karim1, Zinat Mahal2, Safia Iqbal1, Harun or Rashid2, M. Abu Hena Mostofa Jamal1, Md. Azizul Islam1, Md. Mafizur Rahman1

  1. Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh
  2. Institute of Food and Radiation biology, Atomic Energy Commission, Bangladesh
Lathyrus sativus (Khesari  plant) and sugarcane bagasse  are considered as  agro  wastes. Khesari plants are generally grown in fields as weeds and they have to be removed prior to cultivation. Taking this view in mind, we have investigated  the conversion of these lignocellulosic agro-waste as an enriched feed stock for cattle via by solid state fermentation using a cellulolytic fungus, Pleurotus sajor-caju.

 

The strain required 8 weeks to complete the fermentation on both the untreated and treated (with alkali, lime and presoaked) substrates at 30°C.Higher amounts of reducing sugar and soluble protein were found in each of the lime treated substrates than untreated substrates. Results also indicated that presoaked substrate contain higher amounts of reducing sugar and soluble protein than unsoaked substrate. Among the substrates, mixed substrate (khesari plant + sugarcane bagasse) was found to accumulate higher amount of sugar, 22.15 mg/g and protein, 22.80 mg/g than those of khesari plant in the  5th week of fermentation. 
The treatments that augmented the level of sugar and protein were also found to enhance the cellobiase, carboxy methyl cellulase and avicelase activity of crude culture extracts. These results suggest that lime treatment and presoaking seem to increase the digestibility of the  substrates by the fungal cellulolytic enzymes. During eight weeks of fermentation, relatively higher cellobiase activity was found as compared to that of carboxymethylcellulase and avicelase at 30o C for the fungul strain. The results of the present study clearly indicate that fungal  conversion with pretreatment transform these lignocellulosic  agro-wastes to a nutritionally enriched animal feed.
Get the full articles at: http://www.innspub.net/volume-4-number-5-may-2014-2/

Journal Name: International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)

Publication Name: International Network For Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)


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Jatropha-based alley cropping system’s contribution to carbon sequestration – IJAAR an open access research journals

By: Rico A. Marin

  • College of Forestry and Environmental Science, Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon, Philippines

Key Words: Alley cropping, Agroforestry, Carbon sequestration, Jatropha curcas, hedgerow.

The study was conducted to evaluate the total carbon stocks sequestered in a Jatropha – based alley cropping system treated with varying fertilizer applications. The study was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The alley was planted with corn in two seasons Treatments include control (no fertilizer), organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer applied to the alley crops. Findings showed that the treatments with fertilizer applications had higher carbon stock in the jatropha hedges.

 

The carbon content of the corn stover was also higher in organic and inorganic fertilizer-applied treatments. However, highest soil carbon content was shown in treatments applied with organic fertilizer (4.28 Ton ha-1). The inorganic fertilizer treatment had the lowest soil carbon content with a mean of 4.28 Ton ha-1. In terms of total carbon stock of the entire jatropha-based alley cropping system, there was a significant difference among treatments with organic fertilizer application having the highest mean of 7.79 Ton ha-1 while the inorganic treated plots had 6.53 Ton ha-1. The no fertilizer treatment had the least carbon stocks with 6.53 Ton ha-1. 
This recent study revealed that the jatropha-based alley cropping system is a potential land-use for carbon sequestration. This farming system needs to be promoted in upland areas to function not only as soil and water conservation measures but also as a possible remedy for global warming. Get the full articles at: http://www.innspub.net/ijaar/jatropha-based-alley-cropping-systems-contribution-to-carbon-sequestration/

Journal Name: International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)

Publication Name: International Network For Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)

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