One way to evaluation of sustainable developing in agriculture is using of energy flow method. This method in an agricultural product system is the energy consuming in product operations and energy saving in produced crops. In this article, evaluation of energy balance and energy indices under rain fed farming potato in north of Iran (Guilan province) was investigated. Data were collected from 72 farms by used a face to face questionnaire method during 2010 year in Guilan province. By using of consumed data as inputs and total production as output, and their concern equivalent energy, energy balance and energy indices were calculated. Energy efficiency (energy output to input energy ratio) for watered farming potato production in this study was calculated 3.48, showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems potato production. Energy balance efficiency (production energy to consumption energy ratio) for watered farming potato production in this study was calculated 2.58, showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems potato production.
Article source: Volume 3, Number 11, November 2013 – IJB
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) composed of cyanobacteria, green algae, bryophytes, and lichens are a major biotic component of arid and semi-arid rangeland environments worldwide. They are recognized and studied in many parts of the world. However, they have been the subject of very few studies in Africa. The current study deals with the assessment of the influence of BSCs on soil chemistry in an arid ecosystem in Southern Tunisia. Our main objective is to test whether biological soil crusts are able to improve soil chemical properties. Our investigation showed that biological soils crusts had an expressive effect on soil chemistry. In fact, biologically crusted soils hadhigher levels of pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, Ca, K, Na, Cl and lower C: N ratio compared to biologically un-crusted soils. The differences between crusted and un-crusted soils were statistically significant at 95% confidence. The PCA results demonstrate further that BSCs significantly enhance soil surface properties. These data support other studies revealing an improvement of the soil chemical properties by means of biological soil crusts.
Article Source: Volume 4, Number 5, May 2014 – IJAAR
Characteristics of saline soil determine the rice yield along the seaboard. High concentration of dissolved salt decreases growth and rice yield. The study aimed to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of saline soil in Sidoarjo and Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. The result analysis of soil exchangeable Na+, K+, Ca++, and Mg++respectively was 0.8-1.94; 0.33-2.73; 16.32-20.4, 1.83-8.88 me.100g-1.The value of soil pH was 7.35- 7.55, EC value of soil was 0.64-1.83dS.m-1, and the content of organic-C was between 1.1-2,4,6 %. The result of soil characterization was then crosschecked with the rice yield in saline soil by weighing dry rice grains per clump. The rice yield was 3-4.1 ton.ha-1 and negatively correlated to the exchangeable values of Na, SAR, bulk density and dust content. It was positively correlated with organic-C, fertilizer, exchangeableof Ca++, Mg++, and K+, as well as soil’s CEC. The ratio value of Ca:Mgnamely2.2-8.2, and K:Mgnamely0.18-0.21 exceeded the limit of ideal value and caused low production. The rice yield was negatively correlated with the content of exchangeableNa+, values of pH and EC. It achieved more than 4 ton.ha-1when added with 300-450 g.plant-1 of organic materials and 1.0-1.3 g.plant-1 of NPK.
Article Source: Volume 6, Number 1, January 2015 – IJAAR
The study was accomplished in pure and mixed stands of Quercus castaneifolia and Quercus macranthera in northern Iran. collection of the sample and study of the ecological factors including the seasons, spring, summer and autumn of the years 2009 and 2010 was conducted and the scientific name of the species, life forms and Chorology were recorded using the available resources. 186 species have been identified of 6 Pteridophytes families, 2 families from Gymnosperms and 52 families of Angiosperms (8 families from a Dicotyledone and 44 families of Monocotyledon). The maximum number of species was related to the flowing family: Asteraceae, Papilionaceae, Lamiaceae, Orchidaceae and Poaceae. Raunkiaer’s classification of Hemicryptophytes 49%, Cryptophytes 20%, Phanerophytes 19%, and 8% Therophytes, Chamaephytes 3 percent and 1 percent of Epiphytic species are allocated to the region. Chorology study area showed the highest value in zone of Europe-Siberia (the Caspian), with 41% belonging. The study of the list of endangered species showed one endangered species, 5 vulnerable species. 20 species were identified as lower risk. Lilium ledebourii was identified as a rare species with relatively wide distribution in different parts of the region.
Article Source: Volume 4, Number 6, March 2014 – IJB