Archive | January 2015

Present status and future trend of chilghoza forest in Goharabad, District Diamer, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

  • Muhammad Akbar1, Hasil Khan2, Alamdar Hussain , Sujjad Hyder1, Farida Begum1, Mayoor Khan3, Anwar Ali2, Syed Arif Hussian4, Ghulam Raza1 Sher Wali Khan4, Qamar Abbas4, Salar Ali1
  1. Department of Environmental Sciences Karakoram International University Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan
  2. Forest Education Division Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan
  3. Wildlife Conservation Society near Serina Hotel Jutial Gilgit, Pakistan
  4. Department of Biological Sciences Karakoram International University Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan


The current study was carried out in Chilghoza forest of Goharabad District Diamer. The study area is situated in the foothills of Hindukush mountain range at 5 Km from KKH, at an elevation of 2000 to 5000 m with an area of 310 km².

Six stands of Chilghoza Forest were selected randomly for the enumeration of data from different locations and aspects suing Point Center Quadrate Method. Stand densities of the six stands were 16.61, 12.168, 7.367, 7.163, 4.320, 3.982 m²/ha respectively in all six stands.

The distribution of Pinus gerardiana is satisfactory in almost in all the stands however the distribution of associated species were very poor. The poor distribution and gaps in small size middle and in large classes, Juniperus excelsa and Quercus ilex seem to be losing ground in this forest due to anthropogenic activities i.e. felling, grazing, sliding, burning and several human induced factors.

As the study area falls under the category of private forest, thus it was found that all of the respondents were owners of the forest. It was interesting to know that the Chilghoza forests are exclusively used for nuts collection.

It was found that 100% villagers depend on the Chilghoza forest for nuts collection and no timber or fuel wood collection is made from the Chilghoza forests, conservation committee have imposed fine on cutting of Chilghoza forests for fuel wood or timber.

However, the associated tree species including Juiper , Oak, Birch and Blue pine are felled for fuel wood and other wood purposes. Government and non-governmental organizations should come forward to support local communities in conservation of the valuable Chilghoza forests.

Full Article Available at: Volume 5, Number 5, November 2014 – JBES

Journal Name:  Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES)


Estimate energy, energy balance and economic indices of watered farming Potato Production in North of Iran

farming Potato in Iran

One way to evaluation of sustainable developing in agriculture is using of energy flow method. This method in an agricultural product system is the energy consuming in product operations and energy saving in produced crops. In this article, evaluation of energy balance and energy indices under rain fed farming potato in north of Iran (Guilan province) was investigated. Data were collected from 72 farms by used a face to face questionnaire method during 2010 year in Guilan province. By using of consumed data as inputs and total production as output, and their concern equivalent energy, energy balance and energy indices were calculated. Energy efficiency (energy output to input energy ratio) for watered farming potato production in this study was calculated 3.48, showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems potato production. Energy balance efficiency (production energy to consumption energy ratio) for watered farming potato production in this study was calculated 2.58, showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems potato production.

Article source: Volume 3, Number 11, November 2013 – IJB

Effect of biological soil crusts on soil chemical properties: a study from Tunisian arid ecosystem

Biological soil crusts

Biological soil crusts (BSCs) composed of cyanobacteria, green algae, bryophytes, and lichens are a major biotic component of arid and semi-arid rangeland environments worldwide. They are recognized and studied in many parts of the world. However, they have been the subject of very few studies in Africa. The current study deals with the assessment of the influence of BSCs on soil chemistry in an arid ecosystem in Southern Tunisia. Our main objective is to test whether biological soil crusts are able to improve soil chemical properties. Our investigation showed that biological soils crusts had an expressive effect on soil chemistry. In fact, biologically crusted soils hadhigher levels of pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, Ca, K, Na, Cl and lower C: N ratio compared to biologically un-crusted soils. The differences between crusted and un-crusted soils were statistically significant at 95% confidence. The PCA results demonstrate further that BSCs significantly enhance soil surface properties. These data support other studies revealing an improvement of the soil chemical properties by means of biological soil crusts.

Article Source: Volume 4, Number 5, May 2014 – IJAAR

Characteristics of saline soil and effect of fertilizer application to rice yield


Characteristics of saline soil determine the rice yield along the seaboard. High concentration of dissolved salt decreases growth and rice yield. The study aimed to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of saline soil in Sidoarjo and Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. The result analysis of soil exchangeable Na+, K+, Ca++, and Mg++respectively was 0.8-1.94; 0.33-2.73; 16.32-20.4, 1.83-8.88 me.100g-1.The value of soil pH was 7.35- 7.55, EC value of soil was 0.64-1.83dS.m-1, and the content of organic-C was between 1.1-2,4,6 %. The result of soil characterization was then crosschecked with the rice yield in saline soil by weighing dry rice grains per clump. The rice yield was 3-4.1 ton.ha-1 and negatively correlated to the exchangeable values of Na, SAR, bulk density and dust content. It was positively correlated with organic-C, fertilizer, exchangeableof Ca++, Mg++, and K+, as well as soil’s CEC. The ratio value of Ca:Mgnamely2.2-8.2, and K:Mgnamely0.18-0.21 exceeded the limit of ideal value and caused low production. The rice yield was negatively correlated with the content of exchangeableNa+, values of pH and EC. It achieved more than 4 ton.ha-1when added with 300-450 g.plant-1 of organic materials and 1.0-1.3 g.plant-1 of NPK.

Article Source:  Volume 6, Number 1, January 2015 – IJAAR

Biodiversity in oak forests (Quercus castaneifolia and Quercus macranthera) in Ramsar, Northern Iran

Ramsar Northern Iran

The study was accomplished in pure and mixed stands of Quercus castaneifolia and Quercus macranthera in northern Iran. collection of the sample and study of the ecological factors including the seasons, spring, summer and autumn of the years 2009 and 2010 was conducted and the scientific name of the species, life forms and Chorology were recorded using the available resources. 186 species have been identified of 6 Pteridophytes families, 2 families from Gymnosperms and 52 families of Angiosperms (8 families from a Dicotyledone and 44 families of Monocotyledon). The maximum number of species was related to the flowing family: Asteraceae, Papilionaceae, Lamiaceae, Orchidaceae and Poaceae. Raunkiaer’s classification of Hemicryptophytes 49%, Cryptophytes 20%, Phanerophytes 19%, and 8% Therophytes, Chamaephytes 3 percent and 1 percent of Epiphytic species are allocated to the region. Chorology study area showed the highest value in zone of Europe-Siberia (the Caspian), with 41% belonging. The study of the list of endangered species showed one endangered species, 5 vulnerable species. 20 species were identified as lower risk. Lilium ledebourii was identified as a rare species with relatively wide distribution in different parts of the region.

Article Source: Volume 4, Number 6, March 2014 – IJB